Contenant des incohérences historiques et géographiques, ce texte est généralement c… Judith et Holopherne . Uzziah and the town’s other magistrates succumb the townspeople’s demands and say they will surrender to the Assyrians in five days—unless the Lord takes pity (Judith 7:29-30). This interpretation aligns with both the biblical and historical accounts of the Assyrian siege of Jerusalem. 1:2 … Continue reading → Gen 26:34. Judith strategizes. She prays thrice—once before her adventure starts (Judith 9), then for strength to behead Holofernes (Judith 13:4-7) and finally in a public song at the national celebrations honoring her deed and the slaughter of the Assyrians (Judith 16:1–17). [27], Nevertheless, there have been various attempts by both scholars and clergy to understand the characters and events in the Book as allegorical representations of actual personages and historical events. Judith vient de l'hébreu Yehoudit, féminin de Yehoudi, Juif. English writer Arnold Bennett in 1919 tried his hand at dramaturgy with Judith, a faithful reproduction in three acts; it premiered in spring 1919 at Devonshire Park Theatre, Eastbourne. Samson was no general, like Gideon or Jephthah, to call out his people and lead them in war. In medieval Christian art, the predominance of church patronage assured that Judith's patristic valences as "Mulier Sancta" and Virgin Mary prototype would prevail: from the 8th-century frescoes in Santa Maria Antigua in Rome through innumerable later bible miniatures. Conclusion about Judith (16.1–25)[27], Most contemporary exegetes, such as Biblical scholar Gianfranco Ravasi, generally tend to ascribe Judith to one of several contemporaneous literary genres, reading it as an extended parable in the form of a historical fiction, or a propaganda literary work from the days of the Seleucid oppression. Reine du clair-obscur caravagesque, la talentueuse peintre italienne Artemisia Gentileschi (1593 – 1652) a réussi à s’imposer à une époque où être femme et artiste relevait du parcours du combattant. It is generally accepted that the Book of Judith is ahistorical. The Book of Judith can be split into two parts or "acts" of approximately equal length. Now Arphaxad king of the Medes had brought many nations under his dominions, and he built a very strong city, which he called Ecbatana, 2. [27] Chapters 8–16 then introduce Judith and depict her heroic actions to save her people. [10][11] The textual reliability of the Book of Judith was also taken for granted, to the extent that Biblical commentator Nachmanides (Ramban) quoted several passages from a Peshitta (Syriac version) of Judith in support of his rendering of Deuteronomy 21:14. Wonderful re-telling of the famous tale. It's an intimate family tale of misfortune, crafty use of kinship ties, and ultimately, loyalty. Details of vocabulary and phrasing point to a Greek text written in a language modeled on the Greek developed through translating the other books in the Septuagint. [44], In 16th-century France, writers such as Guillaume Du Bartas, Gabrielle de Coignard and Anne de Marquets composed poems on Judith's triumph over Holofernes. Indexer Notes . The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded from the Hebrew canon and assigned by Protestants to their apocrypha. "Judith" redirects here. Exploring Genesis: The Bible’s Ancient Traditions in Context, Hanukkah, 1 and 2 Maccabees, and the Apocrypha, Herod the Great and the Herodian Family Tree, Herod’s Death, Jesus’ Birth and a Lunar Eclipse, Trove of Ancient Gold Coins Found in Yavneh Juglet, Antiochus Epiphanes—The Bible’s Most Notoriously Forgotten Villain. Judith est un prénom féminin qui a pour variantes Jodie et Jody [1].. Sens et origine du nom. The American playwright Thomas Bailey Aldrich's Judith of Bethulia was first performed in New York, 1905, and was the basis for the 1914 production Judith of Bethulia by director D. W. Griffith. [47] In 1981, the play "Judith among the Lepers" by the Israeli (Hebrew) playwright Moshe Shamir was performed in Israel. The fictional nature "is evident from its blending of history and fiction, beginning in the very first verse, and is too prevalent thereafter to be considered as the result of mere historical mistakes. Les catholiques et les orthodoxes les incluent dans l’Ancien Testament, mais les églises protestantes les considèrent comme apocryphes à l’authenticité douteuse. Besides, one may note that miracles and unusual occurrences were […], […] involved in the action. The United States Episcopal Church calls for a reading of Judith 9:1, 11–14 at Mass on the Feast of St Mary Magdalen, July 22. (a) That from which Jerome's Jewish help made the Hebrew that formed the basis of Jerome's Latin version. Judith knows her power over men. Although Nebuchadnezzar and Ashurbanipal's campaigns show direct parallels, the main incident of Judith's intervention has never been recorded in official history. Femmes guerrières. Marc-Antoine Charpentier has composed, Judith sive Bethulia liberata H.391, oratorio for soloists, chorus, 2 flutes, strings, and continuo (? [23] Among Anglicanism, Anglo-Catholics consider it to be either an apocryphal or deuterocanonical book. [27], The first extant commentary on The Book of Judith is by Hrabanus Maurus (9th century). She uses her charm to become an intimate friend of Holofernes, but finally beheads him allowing Israel to counter-attack the Assyrians. Together the women walk through the Assyrian lines as they have on other nights, allegedly to pray and bathe. [40], Like Judith, the Queen had to face the menace of a foreign king who had a tendency to destroy the temples of other religions. Its main character is a Moabite woman named Ruth, the daughter-in-law of a Jewish widow named Naomi. The story of Judith has been a favourite of latter-day playwrights; it was brought alive in 1892 by Abraham Goldfaden, who worked in Eastern Europe. I WILL ALERT THAT EVERY GOOD CHRISTIAN SHOULD TRY AND READ THESE BOOKS CALLED APOCRYPHA/DETEROCANONICAL BOOKS. [39], Under this theory, the story, although fictional, would be set in the time of Queen Salome Alexandra, the only Jewish regnant queen, who reigned over Judea from 76 to 67 BC. Calling her beautiful and eloquent (Judith 11:23), he welcomes her to the camp and grants her request to travel through the camp at night to bathe at a spring and pray (Judith 12:5–7). From an article on Catholic Italian magazine "Famiglia Cristiana". Could Judith have been ANY Hebrew widow? Originaire de Thuringe, elle quitta son pays natal suite au décès de son époux et rejoignit son frère à Kulmsee où elle se consacra aux ?uvres de charité. I specially ordered a copy of the apocrypha as I am not a Catholic to study books from it, and the theory presented in there seems to go toward novel and Judith being representative of the whole of Israel. 4 God was pleased with what he saw. 1. [27], In the Christian West from the patristic period on, Judith was invoked in a wide variety of texts as a multi-faceted allegorical figure. (Jewess), a wife of Esau. Judith 1:9 Greek Ethiopian: Ethiopia is the name given in Graeco-Roman times to the extensive territory south of the First Cataract of the Nile River. Throughout the book, it seems Judith merely smiles and men collapse (Judith 10:7, 14, 19, 23). Isaiah 37:22 – “…this is the word which the LORD hath spoken concerning him [Sennacherib]: The virgin daughter of Zion hath despised thee and laughed thee to scorn; the daughter of Jerusalem hath shaken her head at thee.”. 1: Arphaxad, roi des Mèdes, après avoir soumis à son empire beaucoup de nations, bâtit de pierres de taille équarries une ville très forte, qu'il appela Ecbatane. Sister Sister How Artemisia provided her heroines with the support and care of other women. The Book of Judith is one of the apocryphal books of the Bible: it is omitted from the canonical Protestant versions, although is remains a part of the Catholic text. Stopped by an Assyrian border patrol and escorted by 100 men directly to Holofernes (Judith 10:17), she readily spins a tall tale that contains just enough fact to be believed. Both women were widows whose strategical and diplomatic skills helped in the defeat of the invader. She accessorizes her outfit with rings, bracelets, anklets, earrings, other jewelry, and attractive sandals (Judith 10:4). Oziah, governor of Bethulia; together with Cabri and Carmi, he rules over Judith's city. Other women wordsmiths in the Biblical text are Lady Wisdom (Proverbs 8-9), Abigail (1 Samuel 25:23–31), Deborah (Judges 5), and the Beloved in Song of Songs. [3], The extant Hebrew language versions, whether identical to the Greek, or in the shorter Hebrew version, date to the Middle Ages. Of stones squared and hewed: he made the walls thereof seventy cubits broad, and thirty cubits high, and the towers thereof he made a hundred cubits high. [18] In Jerome's Prologue to Judith[19][20] he claims that the Book of Judith was "found by the Nicene Council to have been counted among the number of the Sacred Scriptures". I discovered that there are several lessons one can draw (exegesis) by reviewing it. He is given the task of destroying the rebels who did not support the king of Nineveh in his resistance against Cheleud and the king of Media, until Israel also becomes a target of his military campaign. Figurant parmi les sept livres bibliques deutérocanoniques qui ne faisaient pas partie du canon hébraïque des Écritures, le livre dit de Judith n'est entré dans le canon des chrétiens qu'à l'époque patristique, à la fin du ier siècle. Plan du livre de Judith: I- Mise en place de l’histoire • Nabuchodonosor écrase son ennemi mède et charge son général Holopherne de mener une expédition punitive vers l’ouest (1-2,20) Dynastie des Carolingiens, Héritière de l'Artois. a literary fiction whose characters stand for some real historical figure, generally contemporary to the author. [22], The canonicity of Judith is rejected by Protestants, who accept as the Old Testament only those books that are found in the Jewish canon. 1 … Book of Judith, apocryphal work excluded from the Hebrew and Protestant biblical canons but included in the Septuagint (Greek version of the Hebrew Bible) and accepted in the Roman canon. THIS BOOK PICKS THE PICTURE OF DAVID, SMALL AS HE WAS BUT GIFTED WITH THE SKILLS OF A STRING, FREED A WHOLE NATION FROM THE SNARES OF GOLIATH. Is it not just important to focus on the bible? She goes with her loyal maid to the camp of the enemy general, Holofernes, with whom she slowly ingratiates herself, promising him information on the Israelites. 3 Then God commanded, “Let there be light”—and light appeared. Gaining his trust, she is allowed access to his tent one night as he lies in a drunken stupor. Alessandro Scarlatti wrote an oratorio in 1693, La Giuditta, as did the Portuguese composer Francisco António de Almeida in 1726; Juditha triumphans was written in 1716 by Antonio Vivaldi; Mozart composed in 1771 La Betulia Liberata (KV 118), to a libretto by Pietro Metastasio. Dig into the illuminating world of the Bible with a BAS All-Access membership. A general of Nebuchadnezzar who attacked Israel, according to the Book of Judith, but was ultimately beheaded by Judith. It tells of a Jewish widow, Judith, who uses her beauty and charm to destroy an Assyrian general and save Israel from oppression. Kevin R. Brine, et al., The Sword of Judith: Judith Studies Across the Disciplines, pg. 3. 2. WHAT A NICE PIECE THERE. [citation needed], In Renaissance literature and visual arts, all of these trends were continued, often in updated forms, and developed. He grew up to become the strongest man of whom the Bible tells. — Robin Gallager Branch, writing in the Biblical Archaeology Society journal. Dressing in a way “to entice the eyes of all the men who might see her” (Judith 10:4), Judith and her maid set forth at night down the valley intending to be captured. This verse, an echo of Deborah’s vindication of Jael’s similar, hands-on murder of Sisera (Judges 4:21, 5:24–26), is pivotal in Roman Catholic theology, for it also is spoken of Mary (Luke 1:42, 48). When they … Le roi d’Assyrie, Nabuchodonosor II est en guerre contre les Mèdes, peuple d’Iran, souvent confondu avec les Perses. Voilà un épisode célèbre de l’Ancien Testament qui, pour une fois, ne cantonne pas la femme au rôle de potiche ou, pire, d’immonde pêcheresse. Judith was a wealthy widow who spent most of her days in solitude, prayer, and fasting. Frequently, however, one writer contributes many valuable works, and sometimes, by cooperation of like-minded scholars, commentaries on the whole Bible are produced. Mais ils sont des représentants de certaines valeurs. My Judith is paralyzed by her deed, frozen by the thought that she might give birth to Holofernes' son; she knows that she has passed her boundaries, that she has, at the very least, done the right thing for the wrong reasons.[46]. Rien de nouveau. Connect with friends, family and other people you know. Nebuchadnezzar takes revenge (Book of Judith 1-7:32)There is a war between two ancient kings, Nebuchadnezzar and Arphaxad – see Bad Men in the Bible: Nebuchadnezzar for information about Babylon and its king.. At the start of this war Nebuchadnezzar orders all the city states in surrounding kingdoms to send him a levy of soldiers, but they flout his command. C’est une femme forte, entière et prête à tout, mais jusqu’où ? Few writers are equal to the task of commenting with profit on the Bible as a whole, and, with the growth of knowledge, this task is now seldom attempted. However, if she was a real person it would be great. Also, the reasons for the name changes are difficult to understand, unless the text was transmitted without character names before they were added by the Greek translator, who lived centuries later. By submitting above, you agree to our privacy policy. Arthur Honegger composed an oratorio, Judith, in 1925 to a libretto by René Morax. Upon hearing this, Judith, instead of going to Bethulia’s leaders, summons them to her home (Judith 8:10). The daughter of Jerusalem is Judith (Yehudit), the feminine form of Yehuda; i.e. Traditional stories with a twist. Judith et Holopherne n’ont probablement jamais existé, comme un paquet de personnages de la Bible. Elie ou La conversion de Dieu (Bible - Catéchèse) (French Edition): ISBN 9782283602119 (978-2-283-60211-9) Softcover, LETHIELLEUX, 2003 Hérode (French Edition) Judy Chicago included Judith with a place setting in The Dinner Party.[45]. JB JUDITH Chapter 1 THE CAMPAIGN OF HOLOFERNES Nebuchadnezzar and Arphaxad[*a] 1:1 It was the twelfth year of Nebuchadnezzar[*b] who reigned over the Assyrians in the great city of Nineveh. Tobit chapter 1 KJV (King James Version) 1 The book of the words of Tobit, son of Tobiel, the son of Ananiel, the son of Aduel, the son of Gabael, of the seed of Asael, of the tribe of Nephthali;. Décédée en 879,à l'âge d'environ 34 ans. According to the Book of Genesis he was one of the five sons of Shem (the son of Noah). This Bible History Daily feature was originally published on July 30, 2012. [24], Judith is also referred to in chapter 28 of 1 Meqabyan, a book considered canonical in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.[25]. Declining to reveal it, she nonetheless proclaims her deed will “go down through all generations of our descendants” (Judith 8:32). The Greek version uses deliberately cryptic and anachronistic references such as "Nebuchadnezzar", a "King of Assyria", who "reigns in Nineveh", for the same king. In the case of the Book of Judith, Biblical scholar Gabriele Boccaccini,[38] identified Nebuchadnezzar with Tigranes the Great (140–56 BC), a powerful King of Armenia who, according to Josephus and Strabo, conquered all of the lands identified by the Biblical author in Judith. JUDITH. "[27], Thus, the great villain is "Nebuchadnezzar, who ruled over the Assyrians" (1:1), yet the historical Nebuchadnezzar II was the king of Babylonia. Bible Maps Genesis 26:34–35 describes Esau's marriage at the age of forty to two Canaanite women: Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath the daughter of … In the epic, she is the brave warrior, forceful and active; in the homily she is an exemplar of pious chastity for cloistered nuns. He deliberately departs from the biblical text: I have no use for the biblical Judith. [37] As a typical policy of the time, all leadership was thus transferred in the hands of the High Priest of Israel in charge, which was Joakim in this case (Judith 4:6). Judith Patricia Albeck (1930-2017), also known as Pat Albeck, is a well-known British textile designer, but he showed his talent in illustration design not only in the fabric industry but also in pottery, wallpaper, and miscellaneous goods. Her gender made her a natural example of the biblical paradox of "strength in weakness"; she is thus paired with David and her beheading of Holofernes paralleled with that of Goliath – both deeds saved the Covenant People from a militarily superior enemy. There, Judith starts shouting (Judith 13:14)! The Italian Renaissance poet Lucrezia Tornabuoni chose Judith as one of the five subjects of her poetry on biblical figures. Les catholiques et les orthodoxes les incluent dans l’Ancien Testament, mais les églises protestantes les considèrent comme apocryphes à l’authenticité douteuse. Elle est honorée le 5 mai. That is mean, such a nature is not worthy of her success [...]. Judah Maccabee (or Judas Maccabeus, also spelled Machabeus, or Maccabæus, Hebrew: יהודה המכבי, Yehudah HaMakabi) was a Jewish priest and a son of the priest Mattathias.He led the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire (167–160 BCE).. joo'-dith (for etymology, see next article): (1) A wife of Esau, daughter of Beeri the Hittite (Genesis 26:34). The account of Judith's beheading Holofernes has been treated by several painters and sculptors, most notably Donatello and Caravaggio, as well as Sandro Botticelli, Andrea Mantegna, Giorgione, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Titian, Horace Vernet, Gustav Klimt, Artemisia Gentileschi, Jan Sanders van Hemessen, Trophime Bigot, Francisco Goya, Francesco Cairo and Hermann-Paul. The profanation of the temple (Judith 4:3) might have been that under king Hezekiah (see 2 Chronicles, xxix, 18–19), who reigned between c. 715 and 686 BC. An Old English poetic version is found together with Beowulf (their epics appear both in the Nowell Codex). "Mulier sancta," she personified the Church and many virtues – Humility, Justice, Fortitude, Chastity (the opposite of Holofernes' vices Pride, Tyranny, Decadence, Lust) – and she was, like the other heroic women of the Hebrew scriptural tradition, made into a typological prefiguration of the Virgin Mary. Are we not told in tge bible we should not take away or add to this bible book? Nebuchadnezzar, claimed here to be the king of Nineveh and Assyria. Judith et Holopherne L’histoire de Judith et d’Holopherne fait partie des livres dits Deuterocanoniques de la Bible. 1 In the beginning, when God created the universe, [] 2 the earth was formless and desolate. Inspired by the great Judith paintings of the past, transforming them and interpreting them in a new way! He is a devout soldier of his king, whom he wants to see exalted in all lands. "[29] Other scholars note that Judith fits within and even incorporates the genre of "salvation traditions" from the Old Testament, particularly the story of Deborah and Jael (Judges 4–5), who seduced and inebriated the Canaanite commander Sisera before hammering a tent-peg into his forehead. Achior, an Ammonite king at Nebuchadnezzar's court; he warns the king of Assyria of the power of the God of Israel but is mocked. The story also inspired oratorios by Antonio Vivaldi, W. A. Mozart and Hubert Parry, and an operetta by Jacob Pavlovitch Adler. The “virgin daughter of Zion” is Jerusalem, the capital of Judah. Son original hébreu est perdu ; il ne reste que … Chiding them for testing God (Judith 8:11–12), she declares she has a plan to save Bethulia, Jerusalem, the Temple, and the people. Jael is one of those women of the Bible who we don’t get a lot of details or background on. Il relate comment la belle et jeune veuve Judith (יהודית ; Yehudit ; « Louée » ou « Juive », en grec : Ιουδίθ) écarte la menace dune invasion assyrienne en décapitant le général ennemi Holopherne, et restaure du même coup la foi du peuple juif en la puissance salvatrice de son Dieu. Historiquement, Judith est un personnage issu de la Bible et connu pour avoir sauvé le peuple hébreu. Judith starb 843 und wurde in St. Martin in Tours bestattet.---In English: Judith (b. c.795, d. 19 April 843) was married in February 819 as the second wife of Louis the Pious. Histoire, 2002, 555 p. (ISBN 978-2-0704-2939-4). I was looking to see is there was archaeological proof of Judith as my breakdown of the book seems to say there are a lot of discrepancies for the locations in the book and some regard it as a novel. This time skipping the prayer-and-bath routine, they head straight up the mountain to Bethulia’s gates. Judith beheading the Holofernes, Caravaggio, painted in 1598 […], […] Slayer of Holofernes, Circa 450BC, Biblical/Apocryphal […], […] Biblical stage (vv. [27], The New Oxford Annotated Apocrypha identifies a clear chiastic pattern in both "acts", in which the order of events is reversed at a central moment in the narrative (i.e., abcc'b'a'). All we know for sure, besides the account of her story, is that she was a Bedouin and the wife of Heber the Kenite. [27] Other details, such as fictional place names, the immense size of armies and fortifications, and the dating of events, cannot be reconciled with the historical record. The gates open and she shares her story. Judith tops them all with two long statements—first to Uzziah and the other Bethulian magistrates (Judith 8:11-27), and the second to Holofernes and the Assyrian forces crowding around to gaze at her beautiful face (Judith 11:5–19). The Assyrians, having lost their leader, disperse, and Israel is saved.