There were also several solidarity protests in other countries that were mostly composed of Libyan expatriates. NATO/Libya : Allies Stress Their Unity of Objective, but Fail to Resolve all Their Differences In: EUROPE DIPLOMACY & DEFENCE, no. In October the fighting diminished, and the rebels declared victory. [99] Likewise, supply lines were run by volunteers. [331] Abdul Jalil, the chairman of NTC, warned Libyans that the country could descend into another civil war if they resort to force to settle their differences. [235] It is thought that two South African mercenaries died in that operation from a NATO air strike on Gaddafi's convoy. He said that he was not a member of the government or the military and therefore had no authority to give such orders. "[209] A Libyan official reported to Libyan television that security forces arrested Tunisians and Egyptians that were "trained to sow chaos. Nightmare. Libyan security forces fired live ammunition into the armed protests. We will drown you. Responding to demands that he step down, he stated that he could not step down, as he held a purely symbolic position like Queen Elizabeth, and that the people were in power. [233], In June 2011, Amnesty International said it found no evidence of foreign mercenaries being used, saying the black Africans said to be "mercenaries" were in fact "sub-Saharan migrants working in Libya," and described the use of mercenaries as a "myth" that "inflamed public opinion" and led to lynchings and executions of black Africans by rebel forces. He concluded, "What we saw in Tahrir Square, and in Tunisia, was a clear situation. One of the alleged mercenaries speaking from a hospital in North Africa stated that around 19 South Africans had been contracted by different companies for the operation.[236]. [325][326][327] On 12 September, Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao's People's Republic of China government also recognized the NTC of Libya as the only Legal regime in Libya. Mutassim Gaddafi † The allegations surfaced in an Al Jazeera report the previous month from Libya-based doctors, who claimed to have found Viagra in the pockets of government soldiers. Eurasia Review", "Qatari military advisers on the ground, helping Libyan rebels get into shape", "Qatar Creates Anti-Syria Mercenary Force based in Turkey", "Tiny Kingdom's Huge Role in Libya Draws Concern", "How Qatar is funding the rise of Islamist extremists", "The Global Intelligence Files - [OS] LIBYA/QATAR/ECON - Libyan rebels reach out to Qatar for banking lifeline", "Special Commentary: Can African Mercenaries Save the Libyan Regime? [173][174] Gaddafi's claims are supported by a 2008 secret cable from the US embassy in Tripoli to the US State Department, and an analysis by the Combating Terrorism Center at the US Military Academy at West Point of a set of documents called the Sinjar Records, purporting to show a statistical study of the al-Qaeda personnel records. [215], According to NTC-allied officials interviewed by The Wall Street Journal, a few key figures facilitated Qatar's weapons and aid to flow directly to the rebels. [171] Rebels denied this. [321], On 1 September, when Gaddafi lost his capital Tripoli but continued fighting, the Russian government under president Dmitry Medvedev and prime minister Vladimir Putin recognized the Libyan NTC as the only legal regime in Libya. In 2006, an initiative was adopted for providing people with low incomes investment portfolios amounting to $30,000 to be deposited with banks and companies. [80], WikiLeaks' disclosure of confidential US diplomatic cables revealed US diplomats there speaking of Gaddafi's "mastery of tactical maneuvering". 200,000 volunteers by war's end(NTC estimate)[24]. [114], The Revolutionary Committees occasionally kept tight control over internal dissent; reportedly, 10% to 20% of Libyans worked as informants for these committees, with surveillance taking place in the government, in factories, and in the education sector. [215][217], Reuters had reported in May 2011 that rebels from eastern Libya – where Ghaddafi's rule had ended in early February – were negotiating with Qatari banks to "facilitate international money transfers in rebel-held areas, a move aimed at recapitalising banks and boosting the economy through trade. [129] In early February, Gaddafi, on behalf of the Jamahiriya, met with political activists, journalists and media figures and warned them that they would be held responsible if they disturbed the peace or created chaos in Libya. The organization stated that "It is reasonable to fear that he has, in fact, decided to largely eliminate, wherever he still can, Libyan citizens who stood up against his regime and furthermore, to systematically and indiscriminately repress civilians. Hamad bin Ali Al Attiyah, Muammar Gaddafi † Guerre en Libye : la chronologie des ... ainsi que trois petits-enfants du dirigeant libyen. [88] Homelessness was insignificant, with literacy rates estimated at 88%, and average life expectancy rose from 51/54 in 1969 to 74/77. [68], In August, rebel forces launched an offensive on the government-held coast of Libya, backed by a wide-reaching NATO bombing campaign, taking back territory lost months before and ultimately capturing the capital city of Tripoli,[69] while Gaddafi evaded capture and loyalists engaged in a rearguard campaign. Article 8 of The Code on the Promotion of Freedom stated that "each citizen has the right to express his opinions and ideas openly in People's Congresses and in all mass media. and on 22 February, The Economist described the protests as an "uprising that is trying to reclaim Libya from the world's longest-ruling autocrat". Journal of Democracy, 22(3), 35–48. [237] Gaddafi shut down all Internet communications in Libya, and arrested Libyans who had given phone interviews to the media. [103] The New York Times pointed to Gaddafi's relatives adopting lavish lifestyles, including luxurious homes, Hollywood film investments, and private parties with American pop stars. There were no combat casualties amongst the coalition forces, although one RAF airman was killed in an accident in Italy. [333], Bani Walid was captured by local tribal fighters on 23 January, due to the NTC's perceived inability to cooperate with them. [353], The ongoing conflict (or conflicts) ended for the purposes of legal qualification with the conclusion of hostilities in Libya in the end of October 2011. Local hospitals and clinics, even in areas considered under rebel control, were reporting hundreds of cases of gunshot wounds and the death toll was impossible to estimate. They took Tripoli in August. [338] Later, rebel spokesman Abdul Hafiz Ghoga reported that the death toll reached 8,000. [140] Foreign workers and disgruntled minorities protested in the main square of Zawiya, Libya against the local administration. According to Freedom House, however, these structures were often manipulated to ensure the dominance of Gaddafi, who reportedly continued to dominate all aspects of government. [220] Chadian sources repudiated allegations that mercenaries from Chad were involved in the fighting in Libya. In fact, most shipments for which Qatar paid went directly to the rebels. [231], A witness stated that mercenaries were more willing to kill demonstrators than Libyan forces were, and earned a reputation as among the most brutal forces employed by the government. [250] Op 17 maart 2011 besloot de VN-veiligheidsraad dat er in Libië moest worden ingegrepen. With Eric Elmosnino, Mathilde Seigner, Fred Testot, Alain Chabat. [192] Security forces, including members of Gaddafi's Revolutionary Committees, stormed hospitals and removed the dead. [290], By 11 March, the Libyan Air Force was running out of quality jet fuel, and the government tried to bribe Maltese Air Force officials in order to buy fuel. He cited reports from the Libyan Foreign Ministry that up to 2,500 al-Qaeda foreign operatives have been working in eastern Libya and were mostly responsible for "stirring up trouble." Some young protestors were also misled. [119] During the early 1980s, the Revolutionary Committees had considerable power and became a growing source of tension within the Jamihiriya,[120] to the extent that Gaddafi sometimes criticized their effectiveness and excessive repression,[119][120] until the power of the Revolutionary Committees was eventually restricted in the late 1980s. The later British parliament's Foreign Affairs Select Committee inquiry concluded that by summer 2011 British policy had become one of regime change. The production of oil had almost completely stopped and the government had lost control of large areas of the country to the militias, while violence increased throughout the country. "[200] Gaddafi's military commanders also reportedly executed soldiers who refused to fire on protesters. They live in terror. In addition, some loyalist forces crossed into Niger, though the escape attempts exploded into violence when detected by Nigerien troops. [176], In the days leading up to the conflict, Gaddafi called for a rally against the government that was to be held on 17 February. The Libyan Civil War was a civil war in Libya during the year 2011. [218], Qatar also provided training to fighters based both in eastern Libya and in the Nafusa Mountains, in the Tripoli area. [215] Cleric Ali al-Sallabi allegedly served as a primary "conduit for Qatari humanitarian aid, money and arms" and helped to direct more than a dozen of the Qatari shipments. In the countryside of France, two groups of boys from the rural villages of Longeverne and Velran are in constant war against each other. A doctor in Benghazi said of the mercenaries that "they know one thing: to kill who is in front of them. In downtown Benghazi, anti-government forces killed the managing director of al-Galaa hospital. In Bayda, unconfirmed reports indicated that the local police force and riot-control units had joined the protesters. [378] By 3 March, an estimated 200,000 refugees had fled Libya to either Tunisia or Egypt. [94] One paper speculated that such a situation created a broader contrast between good education, high demand for democracy, and the government's practices (perceived corruption, political system, supply of democracy). They violently protested against the government. [243] However, every day new footage made with cell phone cameras found its way to YouTube and the international media. Saif al-Islam Gaddafi (POW) Among those, escaping the violence, were native Libyans as well as foreign nationals including Egyptians, Tunisians and Turks. Fleeing the violence of Tripoli by road, as many as 4,000 refugees were crossing the Libya–Tunisia border daily during the first days of the uprising. [93] Libya's corruption perception index in 2010 was 2.2, ranking 146th out of 178 countries, worse than that of Egypt (ranked 98th) and Tunisia (ranked 59th). [62] Human Rights Watch has countered that while many foreign migrants were erroneously accused of fighting with Gaddafi, there were also genuine mercenaries from several nations who participated in the conflict. He also said that he had been receiving "thousands" of phone calls from Benghazi, from residents who were being held hostage and who wanted to be rescued. [125][126] By 27 January, the government had responded to the housing unrest with an over €20 billion investment fund to provide housing and development. [188], In a 17 March 2011 interview, shortly before the military intervention, Muammar Gaddafi's son and heir apparent Saif al-Islam Gaddafi said that "armed militia" fighters in Benghazi were killing children and terrorizing the population. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 was adopted on 26 February, freezing the assets of Gaddafi and ten members of his inner circle and restricting their travel. [307], In June 2011, Muammar Gaddafi and his son Saif al-Islam announced that they were willing to hold elections and that Gaddafi would step aside if he lost. "[76] He abolished the Libyan Constitution of 1951, considering it a neocolonial document. Libya was officially run by a system of people's committees which served as local governments for the country's subdivisions, an indirectly elected General People's Congress as the legislature, and the General People's Committee, led by a Secretary-General, as the executive branch. While most agree that the intensity of the fighting and the organization of the insurgents quickly rose to the level required for the existence of a non-international armed conflict under Common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions,[345][346] the exact date when these conditions were considered fulfilled ranges from late February[347] to 10 March 2011. La guerre de Libye (2011) publié le 3 septembre 2014. They violently protested against the government. [290], It is generally accepted that the military intervention by a multi-state coalition acting under the Security Council mandate since 19 March 2011 occasioned an international armed conflict between Libya and the intervening states. Capture de Kadhafi du 15 février jusqu'au 23 octobre 15 février 2011: Octobre 2011 Rebelles Libyens LA MORT DE KADHAFI SURVIENT LE 20 OCTOBRE alors qu’il tentait de prendre la fuite de Syrte par voiture, il est bombardé par l’OTAN. There was also the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group[169] and the Obaida Ibn Jarrah Brigade which has been held responsible for the assassination of top rebel commander General Abdul Fatah Younis. [356] On 25 February, the International Committee of the Red Cross launched an emergency appeal for US$6,400,000 to meet the emergency needs of people affected by the violent unrest in Libya. Available only in … [16] The Daily Telegraph studied the case of a 16-year-old captured Chadian child soldier in Bayda. Howard, P. N., & Hussain, M. M. (2011). [115] The government sometimes executed dissidents through public hangings and mutilations and re-broadcast them on public television channels. [168] Rebel group primarily initiated from Misrati, Zentan and Derna. Volunteers reportedly guarded the port, local banks and oil terminals to keep the oil flowing. He also said that his father made recorded calls to General Abdul Fatah Younis, who later defected to the rebel forces, in order to request not to use force against protesters, to which he said Fatah Younis responded that protesters were attacking a military site and soldiers were acting in self-defense. A provisional refugee camp set up at Ras Ajdir with a capacity for 10,000 was overflowing with an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 refugees. Despite previous reports suggesting that Muammar Gaddafi may be inside, no members of the Gaddafi family were found. The General People's Congress announced that, of 468 Basic People's Congresses, 64 chose immediate implementation while 251 endorsed implementation "but asked for (it) to be delayed until appropriate measures were put in place". Libya; Economy of Libya; Portal:Libya; Oil reserves in Libya; Energy in Libya; Libyan Civil War (2014–present) Mining industry of Libya; Gebruik op Guerra civil libia (2014-actualidad) Gebruik op میدان‌های نفتی لیبی; Gebruik op Libye; Première guerre civile … The rebels won the battle and took control of the city. Frankrijk en Groot-Brittannië kregen het voortouw bij het militair ingrijpen. [364], While the UN sanctioned military intervention has been implemented on humanitarian grounds, UN agencies seeking to ease the humanitarian crisis repeatedly rejected offers of support from the military to carry out the agencies' humanitarian operations. The conflict grew as thousands of people joined the protests. [226] One group of mercenaries from Niger, who had been allegedly recruited from the streets with promises of money, included a soldier of just 13 years old. [155][156] On his website, Ibn Thabit said that he "has been attacking Gaddafi with his music since 2008" when he posted his first song on the internet, titled "Moammar – the coward". Authorizes Member States that have notified the Secretary-General, acting nationally or through regional organizations or arrangements, and acting in cooperation with the Secretary-General, to take all necessary measures, notwithstanding paragraph 9 of resolution 1970 (2011), to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, including Benghazi, while excluding a foreign occ… Mai 2011. Some top government officials opposed the plan, saying that it would "wreak havoc" in the economy by "fanning inflation and spurring capital flight". [387][388][389], China and Russia, originally abstaining on United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 due to the influence of the Arab League, pointed out that the implemented "no-fly-zone" had gone much further out of the originally agreed aims. The ambassadors to the Arab League, European Union and United Nations have either resigned or stated that they no longer support the government. [127][128], In late January, Jamal al-Hajji, a writer, political commentator and accountant, "call[ed] on the Internet for demonstrations to be held in support of greater freedoms in Libya" inspired by the Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions. A number of senior military officials defected to the opposition, including General Abdul Fatah Younis, General al-Barani Ashkal,[267] Major General Suleiman Mahmoud, Brigadier General Musa'ed Ghaidan Al Mansouri, Brigadier General Hassan Ibrahim Al Qarawi and Brigadier General Dawood Issa Al Qafsi. On the evening of 15 February, between 500 and 600 demonstrators protested in front of Benghazi's police headquarters after the arrest of human rights lawyer Fathi Terbil. "[216], Over ten ammunition shipments sponsored by Qatar were allegedly delivered to anti-Gaddhafi forces via Sudan. Independent numbers of dead and injured in the conflict have still not been made available. It estimated that during the first few days of the conflict, 100 to 110 people were killed in Benghazi and 59 to 64 were killed in Bayda. No school. The Hamza Brigade fought for Gaddafi against the Rebels from 24 February to 12 March. [41] Clashes were also reported in Benghazi and Tripoli. Crowds were armed with petrol bombs and threw stones. [313] By late afternoon the journalists trapped at the Rixos Hotel had been released while heavy fighting continued in the Abu Salim region close to Bab al-Azizia and elsewhere. An attempt to unify the military command of the air campaign (while keeping political and strategic control with a small group), first failed due to objections by the French, German, and Turkish governments. Gaddafi acknowledged that the scheme, which promised up to 30,000 Libyan dinars ($23,000) annually to about a million of Libya's poorest, may "cause chaos before it brought about prosperity," but said "do not be afraid to experiment with a new form of government" and that "this plan is to offer a better future for Libya's children". He stated, "You know, the armoured militia yesterday, they killed four young boys in Benghazi. The Chadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in a statement said that "Chadians are not sent or recruited in Chad to serve as mercenaries in Libya," and that allegations about Chadian mercenaries were "likely to cause serious physical and material harm to Chadians residing in Libya. Estimated total casualties from all sides, including civilians: This page was last changed on 6 April 2020, at 21:16. [74], The NTC has functioned as an interim legislature during the transitional period. [255] The Jamahiriya News Agency reported on a speech delivered by Leader Gaddafi to Misrata tribes in Tripoli, in which he said that the rebels "used children and women as human shields. No money. [382] The Tuareg and Magarha tribes announced their support of the protesters. [315] On 22 September, the NTC captured the southern city of Sabha, and claimed to have found a large cache of chemical weapons. "[183], He called himself a "warrior", and vowed to fight on and die a "martyr", and urged his supporters to leave their homes and attack rebels "in their lairs". [162] The council began to refer to itself as the Libyan Republic and by March had a website. Muammar Gaddafi evaded capture until 20 October 2011, when he was captured and killed in Sirte. But some also fought as pro-Gaddafi mercenaries, and many migrant workers [-] fled ahead of the rebels, fearing they would be mistaken for mercenaries. The government also banned giving blood transfusions to people who had taken part in the demonstrations. [215][216] Jalal al-Dugheily, the NTC Defence Minister, was a Libyan army veteran who reportedly favoured Islamist militia leaders. [89][90] Ping said that for the rebels, "All blacks are mercenaries. [243] Several residents reported that cellphone service was down, and even landline phone service was sporadic. Chair: Professor Mats Berdal, Director, Conflict, Security and Development Research Group (CSDRG) & Programme Director, MA in Conflict, Security and Development. Directed by Yann Samuell. [64] In early March, Gaddafi's forces rallied, pushed eastwards and re-took several coastal cities before reaching Benghazi. [232], On 7 April, Reuters reported that soldiers loyal to Gaddafi were sent into refugee camps to intimidate and bribe black African migrant workers into fighting for the Libyan state during the war. In 1975 he published his manifesto The Green Book. [388], Many states also either issued travel advisories or attempted evacuations. He specifically referred to substances in milk, coffee, and Nescafé, and said that Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda were distributing these hallucinogenic drugs. [134][135][136][137][138] A social media website declared an alternative government, one that would be an interim national council, was the first to compete with Muammar Gaddafi's political authority. Marchers hurled Molotov cocktails in a downtown square in Benghazi, damaging cars, blocking roads, and hurling rocks. We will not permit that at all, and we call on Libyans to voice their issues through existing channels, even if it is to call for the downfall of the government. Nothing else. They were trying to corrupt the local legal process which has long been in place. A September 2013 report by The Independent shows that Libya had plunged into its worst political and economic crisis since the defeat of Gaddafi. No banks. [204][309], Heads of the rebellion reported on 21 August that Gaddafi's son, Saif al-Islam, was under arrest and that they had encircled the leader's compound, suggesting that the war had reached its endgame with an imminent rebel victory. [139], The protests, unrest and confrontations began in earnest on 2 February 2011. [150], Later in February, Gaddafi stated that the rebels were influenced by Al-Qaeda, Osama Bin Laden, and hallucinogenic drugs put in drinks and pills. [71] The National Transitional Council "declared the liberation of Libya" and the official end of the war on 23 October 2011.[72]. [130], The protests would lead to an uprising and civil war, as part of the wider Arab Spring,[131][132] which had already resulted in the ousting of long-term presidents of adjacent Tunisia and Egypt. Confess. Finally, on 24 August 2011, "Qatari special forces" were involved in the final assault on Bab al-Azizia compound. [344], The qualification of the Libyan conflict is the subject of some academic controversy. [122], Between 13 and 16 January 2011, upset at delays in the building of housing units and over political corruption, protesters in Bayda, Derna, Benghazi and other cities broke into, and occupied, housing that the government had been building. [109][110], In 2009 and 2011, the Freedom of the Press Index rated Libya the most-censored state in the Middle East and North Africa. [70], Efforts to mop up pro-Gaddafi forces in northwestern Libya and toward Sirte began even before the rebels fully consolidated control of Tripoli. … La première guerre civile libyenne, ou révolution libyenne, est un conflit armé issu d'un mouvement de contestation populaire, assorti de revendications sociales et politiques, qui s'est déroulé entre le 15 février 2011 et le 23 octobre 2011 en Libye.